This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect
that power is distributed unequally. The fundamental issue here is how a
society handles inequalities among people. People in societies exhibiting a
large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody
has a place and which needs no further justification. In societies with low
power distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand
justification for inequalities of power.
an example of Power Distance by Geert Hofstede
The high side of this dimension, called individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families. Its opposite, collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular in-group to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. A society's position on this dimension is reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “we.”
The masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.
The uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.
This dimension describes how people in the past, as well as today, relate to the fact that so much that happens around us cannot be explained.
In societies with a normative orientation most people have a strong desire to explain as much as possible. People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth and a need for personal stability. They exhibit great respect for social conventions and traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future and a focus on achieving quick results.
In societies with a pragmatic orientation, most
people don’t have a need to explain everything, as they believe that it is
impossible to understand fully the complexity of life. The challenge is not to
know the truth but to live a virtuous life. In societies with a pragmatic
orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context
and time. They show an ability to accept contradictions, adapt according to the circumstances, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness and
perseverance in achieving results.
Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
Geert Hofstede on the 6th dimension