This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect
that power is distributed unequally. The fundamental issue here is how a
society handles inequalities among people. People in societies exhibiting a
large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody
has a place and which needs no further justification. In societies with low
power distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand
justification for inequalities of power.
an example of Power Distance by Geert Hofstede
The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular in-group to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. A society's position on this dimension is reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “we.”
The masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.
The uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.
The long-term orientation
dimension can be interpreted as dealing with society’s search for virtue.
Societies with a short-term orientation generally have a strong concern with
establishing the absolute Truth. They are normative in their thinking. They
exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for
the future, and a focus on achieving quick results. In societies with a
long-term orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on
situation, context and time. They show an ability to adapt traditions to
changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness, and
perseverance in achieving results.
An example of LTO by Geert Hofstede
Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
Geert Hofstede on the 6th dimension