Geert Hofstede

Portrait Image of Geert Hofstede (Prof)

Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture.

Through the publication of his scholarly book Culture's Consequences (1980, new edition 2001), Geert Hofstede (1928) became the founder of comparative intercultural research. His most popular book, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (1991, newest edition 2010, co-authored with Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov), has so far been translated into approximately 20 languages. Geert Hofstede's articles have been published in social science and management journals around the world. He is recognised internationally for having developed the first empirical model of “dimensions“ of national culture, thus establishing a new paradigm for taking account of cultural elements in international economics, communication and cooperation. Later, he also developed a model for organisational cultures.

Through his varied and numerous academic and cultural activities in many different countries, Hofstede can be regarded as one of the leading representatives of intercultural research and studies. The findings of his research and his theoretical ideas are used worldwide in both psychology and management studies.

Geert Hofstede’s personal website


Professor Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. He analysed a large database of employee values scores collected by IBM, between 1967 and 1973, covering more than 70 countries, from which he first used the 40 largest only and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of Geert Hofstede's work since 2001, scores are listed for 76 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations.

Many researchers have followed Hofstede's paradigm. Some have developed new research instruments for comparing country samples, others have replicated  Geert's research, using updated versions of the IBM questionnaire on which his original study was based. These are  known as Values Survey Modules (VSM); there has been a VSM82, a VSM94 and a VSM08; the most recent version is the VSM2013.

Researchers wishing to work with the Hofstede paradigm are strongly advised to read more on Geert Hofstede’s personal website:

This website,, uses copyrighted information from Professor Geert Hofstede’s books, for which itim International has been licensed by Professor Hofstede. Itim cannot give permission to third persons to use this information in publications, and our website cannot be used as a reference.

References should be made to one or both of the original sources:

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