Professor Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. He analysed a large database of employee values scores collected by IBM, between 1967 and 1973, covering more than 70 countries, from which he first used the 40 largest only and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of Geert Hofstede's work since 2001, scores are listed for 76 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations.

Many researchers have followed Hofstede's paradigm. Some have developed new research instruments for comparing country samples, others have replicated  Geert's research, using updated versions of the IBM questionnaire on which his original study was based. These are  known as Values Survey Modules (VSM); there has been a VSM82, a VSM94 and a VSM08; the most recent version is the VSM2013.

Researchers wishing to work with the Hofstede paradigm are strongly advised to read more on Geert Hofstede’s personal website:

This website,, uses copyrighted information from Professor Geert Hofstede’s books, for which itim International has been licensed by Professor Hofstede. Itim cannot give permission to third persons to use this information in publications, and our website cannot be used as a reference.

References should be made to one or both of the original sources:

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